Electrical conductivity (Siemens/cm) is used to monitor high concentration of ions, while resistivity (MÙcm) is used to identify ions if present in small concentrations.These contaminants affect water hardness and alkalinity/acidity.Therefore, international and national authorities have established water quality standards for purified and other regulated grades of water.Key authorities include the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur), the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) The standards in this section are a summary and correct at the time of going to press.
Ultra filtration It removes pyrogens, endotoxins, DNA and RNA fragments.
It damages DNA and RNA polymerase at low doses preventing replication.
Radiation at shorter wavelengths (185 nm) is effective for the oxidation of organics.
Effluent Guidelines are national regulatory standards for wastewater discharged to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants.
EPA issues these regulations for industrial categories, based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.
This review article describes about the purification process and critical factors involves in the purified water.