They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I.The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa and are located near the south-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia.Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school.
The United Nations has estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million.
Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.
These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas.
TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika.
A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year, TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country.
The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.