Federal regulations require that every institution that seeks federal funding for biomedical or behavioral research on human subjects have an institutional review board that reviews research proposals.
This was due in whole to the killings of numerous individuals within Nazi concentration camps.
It was not until the Institutional Review Board (IRB) was established in 1974 by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare that these unlawful experiments against humans came to a halt.
Another step in ethics was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972).
President Clinton made a heartfelt apology to all of those affected and their families in 1997.
An Institutional Review Board is a group of organizational and community representatives required by federal law to review the ethical issues in all proposed research that is federally funded, involves human subjects, or has any potential for harm to subjects (Schutt I-18).
Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested and communicating what we discovered to the larger scientific community.