Wackernagel-Debrunner concur with the latter explanation. Ancient texts use ahimsa to mean non-injury, a broader concept than non-violence.Non-injury implies not killing others, as well as not hurting others mentally or verbally; it includes avoiding all violent means—including physical violence—anything that injures others.All strategies and weapons used in the war must be to defeat the opponent, not designed to cause misery to the opponent; for example, use of arrows is allowed, but use of arrows smeared with painful poison is not allowed. In matters of self-defence, different interpretations of ancient Hindu texts have been offered.
Ahimsa has also been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences.The Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the Vedic era use of the word Ahimsa in the sense familiar in Hinduism (a code of conduct).It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths (CU 8.15.1).Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, described his inspiration as Ahimsa.According to this interpretation of Ahimsa in self-defence, one must not assume that the world is free of aggression.
Others scholar state that this relationship is speculative, and though Jainism is an ancient tradition the oldest traceable texts of Jainism tradition are from many centuries after the Vedic era ended.